Víctimas de la Segunda Guerra Mundial


Víctimas de la Segunda Guerra Mundial

Anexo:Víctimas de la Segunda Guerra Mundial

La contabilización de las víctimas de la Segunda Guerra Mundial ha sido objeto de numerosos estudios, que generalmente ofrecen estimaciones de entre 55 y 60 millones de personas fallecidas, elevándose hasta más de 70 millones según los cálculos más pesimistas y 40 a 45 millones según los más optimistas.

Entre las víctimas mortales se cuentan tanto combatientes y militares como también, y principalmente, población civil, víctima de la propia violencia de los enfrentamientos armados, en especial durante los bombardeos sobre ciudades, pero también como resultado de las particulares circustancias del conflicto que llevaron a violaciones masivas de los derechos humanos siendo el fenómeno del holocausto su máximo exponente, junto con la deportación y reclusión en campos de concentración, a lo que se añadió la desprotección de los millones de refugiados y desplazados, sometidos a hambrunas y los rigores del clima. El calculo se ha visto dificultado por el ocultamiento y cambio de algunas cifras, por ejemplo Stalin reconoció en 1945 que la URSS sufrio 7 millones de muertos (en la actualidad los calculos van de 17 a 37 millones de muertos). China, el segundo país con más muertos, tiene problemas para calcular sus perdidas por que en esos tiempos sufria una guerra civil, sus perdidas se calculan en 8 a 21 millones. Alemania fue el tercer pais mas afectado, con 4,5 a 9 millones de perdidas.[1] Polonia fue el cuarto pais con mas muertos, entre 3 y 6 millones inclyendo la poblacion judia muerta en el Holocausto. Además hay varias cifras que no han sido incluidas por que se han ocultado deliberadamente de la historia, como la hambruna que la guerra provoco en Bengala y mató 2 a 4 millones de indios.[2]

Contenido

Cifras de víctimas mortales

Según F. W. Putzger: Historischer Weltatlas, ed. Velhagen & Klasing, 1969

Las cifras engloban las personas caídas, asesinadas, muertas o desaparecidas durante la guerra.

País Soldados Civiles
(Bombardeos aéreos o guerra de partisanos)
Judíos De origen alemán
(hasta 1949)
Total
Bélgica 10.000 50.000 30.000 0 90.000
Bulgaria 10.000 0 10.000 0 20.000
Ciudad libre de Dánzig 20.000 80.000 0 0 100.000
Alemania 3.200.000 2.100.000 170.000 0 5.470.000
Estonia 0 140.000 0 0 140.000
Finlandia 90.000 0 0 0 90.000
Francia 250.000 270.000 80.000 0 600.000
Grecia 20.000 80.000 60.000 0 160.000
Reino Unido 330.000 60.000 0 0 390.000
Italia 330.000 70.000 10.000 0 410.000
Yugoslavia 300.000 1.300.000 60.000 180.000 1.840.000
Letonia 0 120.000 80.000 10.000 210.000
Lituania 0 170.000 130.000 0 300.000
Países Bajos 10.000 100.000 100.000 0 210.000
Noruega 10.000 0 0 0 10.000
Austria 230.000 40.000 60.000 0 330.000
Polonia 100.000 2.500.000 3.000.000 300.000 5.900.000
Rumanía 200.000 40.000 220.000 140.000 600.000
Unión Soviética 13.600.000 6.000.000 1.000.000 300.000 20.900.000
Checoslovaquia 0 70.000 240.000 450.000 760.000
Hungría 140.000 80.000 200.000 90.000 510.000
EE. UU. (en Europa) 170.000 0 0 0 170.000
Total (Europa) 19.020.000 13.270.000 5.450.000 1.470.000 39.410.000
Australia 30.000 0 0 0 30.000
India Británica 40.000 0 0 0 40.000
China 3.500.000 10.000.000 0 0 13.500.000
Japón 1.700.000 550.000 0 0 2.250.000
Nueva Zelanda (en el área del Pacífico) 10.000 0 0 0 10.000
EE. UU. (en el área del Pacífico) 50.000 0 0 0 50.000
Total (Asia) 5.330.000 10.360.000 0 0 15.690.000
TOTALES 24.350.000 23.630.000 5.450.000 1.470.000 65.100.000

Según W. van Mourik: Bilanz des Krieges, Ed. Lekturama, Rotterdam, 1978

Las cifras comprenden los soldados caídos o desaparecidos y los civiles muertos en acciones de guerra. Se refieren a los países de procedencia de las víctimas.

País Soldados
Australia 30.000
Bélgica 10.000
Bulgaria 10.000
China 3.500.000
Alemania 3.250.000
Finlandia 90.000
Francia 250.000
Grecia 20.000
Reino Unido 370.000
Italia 330.000
Japón 1.700.000
Yugoslavia 300.000
Nueva Zelanda 10.000
Países Bajos 23.000
Noruega 10.000
Austria 230.000
Polonia 120.000
Rumania 200.000
Unión Soviética 13.600.000
Checoslovaquia 20.000
Hungría 120.000
EE. UU. 220.000
Total 24.413.000
País Civiles
Bélgica 50.000
China 10.000.000
Alemania 3.640.000
Estonia 140.000
Francia 270.000
Grecia 80.000
Reino Unido 60.000
Italia 70.000
Japón 360.000
Yugoslavia 1.300.000
Letonia 120.000
Lituania 170.000
Países Bajos 112.000
Austria 40.000
Polonia 2.500.000
Rumania 40.000
Unión Soviética 6.000.000
Checoslovaquia 70.000
Hungría 80.000
Total 25.102.000

Según Wikipedia en inglés, con cifras calculadas de fuentes diversas

Pérdidas de vidas humanas durante la II Guerra Mundia, por países
País Población en 1939 Soldados Civiles Judíos muertos en el Holocausto[1] Muertos en total Porcentaje de muertos sobre el total de la población
Albania[2] 1,073,000 28,000 200 28,200 2.63%
Australia[3] 6,998,000 39,400 700 40,100 0.57%
Austria[4] 6,653,000 40,00 65,000 105,500 1.59%
Bélgica[5] 8,387,000 12,100 49,600 24,400 86,100 1.02%
Brasil[6] 40,289,000 1,000 1,000 2,000 0.00%
Bulgaria[7] 6,458,000 22,000 3,000 25,000 0.38%
Burma[8] 16,119,000 22,000 250,000 272,000 1.16%
Canadá[9] 11,267,000 45,300 45,300 0.40%
China[10] 517,568,000 3,800,000 16,200,000 20,000,000 3.86%
Cuba[11] 4,235,000 100 100 0.00%
Checoslovaquia[12] 15,300,000 25,000 43,000 277,000 345,000 2.25%
Dinamarca[13] 3,795,000 2,100 1,000 100 3,200 0.08%
Estonia[14] 1,134,000 40,000 1,000 41,000 3.62%
Etiopía[15] 17,700,000 5,000 95,000 100,000 0.6%
Finlandia[16] 3,700,000 95,000 2,000 97,000 2.62%
Francia[17] 41,700,000 212,000 267,000 83,000 562,000 1.35%
Indochina francesa[18] 24,600,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 4.07%
Alemania[19][20][21] 69,623,000 5,533,000 1,810,000 160,000 7,503,000 10.77%
Grecia[22] 7,222,000 20,000 220,000 71,300 311,300 4.31%
Hungría[23] 9,129,000 300,000 80,000 200,000 580,000 6.35%
Islandia[24] 119,000 200 200 0.17%
India[25] 378,000,000 87,000 1,500,000 1,587,000 0.42%
Indonesia[26] 69,435,000 4,000,000 4,000,000 5.76%
Irán[27] 14,340,000 200 200 0.00%
Iraq[28] 3,698,000 1,000 1,000 0.03%
Irlanda[29] 2,960,000 200 200 0.00%
Italia[30] 44,394,000 301,400 145,100 8,000 454,500 1.02%
Japón[31] 71,380,000 2,100,000 580,000 2,680,000 3.75%
Corea[32] 23,400,000 60,000 60,000 0.26%
Letonia[33] 1,995,000 147,000 80,000 227,000 11.38%
Lituania[34] 2,575,000 212,000 141,000 353,000 13.71%
Luxemburgo[35] 295,000 1,300 700 2,000 0.68%
Malasia[36] 4,391,000 100,000 100,000 2.28%
Malta[37] 269,000 1,500 1,500 0.56%
México[38] 19,320,000 85 23 108 0.00%
Mongolia[39] 819,000 300 300 0.04%
Países Bajos[40] 8,729,000 7,900 88,900 106,000 202,800 2.32%
Terranova[41] 300,000 1,000 100 1,100 0.37%
Nueva Zelanda[42] 1,629,000 11,900 11,900 0.67%
Noruega[43] 2,945,000 3,000 5,800 700 9,500 0.32%
Filipinas[44] 16,000,000 57,000 90,000 147,000 0.92%
Islas del Pacífico[45] 1,900,000 57,000 57,000 3.00%
Polonia[46] 34,849,000 160,000 2,440,000 3,000,000 5,600,000 16.07%
Timor Portugués[47] 500,000 55,000 55,000 11.00%
Rumania[48] 19,934,000 300,000 64,000 469,000 833,000 4.22%
Singapur[49] 728,000 50,000 50,000 6.87%
Suráfrica[50] 10,160,000 11,900 11,900 0.12%
Unión Soviética[51] 168,500,000 10,700,000 11,400,000 1,000,000 23,100,000 13.71%
España[52] 25,637,000 4,500 4,500 0.02%
Suecia[53] 6,341,000 200 200 0.00%
Suiza[54] 4,210,000 100 100 0.00%
Tailandia[55] 15,023,000 5,600 300 5,900 0.04%
Reino Unido[56] 47,760,000 382,600 67,800 450,400 0.94%
Estados Unidos[57] 131,028,000 416,800 1,700 418,500 0.32%
Yugoslavia[58] 15,400,000 446,000 514,000 67,000 1,027,000 6.67%
Total 1,961,913,000 25,160,000 41,690,200 5,754,400 59,604,600 3.70%


Notas generales

  • Las cifras se han redondeado.
  • Población en 1939 - Fuente: Population Statistics [59]
  • Las víctimas de guerra se calculan según las fronteras nacionales en 1939.
  • Las pérdidas soviéticas totales según las fronteras de postguerra (1946-91) [60]serían de 26.6 millones.[37]
  • Las pérdidas totales de Polonia según las fronteras de la postguerra (1946) [61] son de 2.9 millones.[40]
  • Muerte de militares: entre las víctimas se cuentan las muertes de fuerzas militares regulares tanto en combate como por otras causas. Las muertes de los partisanos y los luchadores de la Resistencia se contabilizan como bajas militares. También se incluyen las muertes de prisioneros de guerra en cautividad y el personal desaparecido en acción. The armed forces of the various nations are treated as single entities, for example the deaths of Austrians, Soviets, French and ethnic Germans in the Wehrmacht are included with German military losses. Prisoner of war deaths in Nazi captivity totaled 3.1 Million[17,Table A] and in Japanese captivity 540,000[4,Chap3]
  • Civilian Deaths - Includes losses from military action and war related deaths caused by famine and disease.
    The Nazi Holocaust took the lives of between 5.1 to 6.0 million Jews.[61] Other groups persecuted and killed by the Nazis [60] [49] [48] [17]. included 130,000 to 500,000 Gypsies [48] [50] [62]; 150,000 to 200,000 handicapped persons [51] ; 2.6 to 3 million Soviet prisoners of war[52]; 1.8 to 1.9 million Poles [38]; 4.5 to 8.2 million Soviet civilians[53][60] [48]; about 10,000 Gay men[54]; about 1,000 Jehovah's Witnesses [55]; between 1,000 to 2,000 Roman Catholic clergy [57] and an unknown number of Freemasons [56]. "The fate of black people from 1933 to 1945 in Nazi Germany and in German-occupied territories ranged from isolation to persecution, sterilization, medical experimentation, incarceration, brutality, and murder." [58] From 1933-1939 the number of German deaths in Nazi concentration camps were 165,415, primarily Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, and trade union leaders. [59]
    The victims of Japanese war crimes totaled 5.4 million civilians[4, Chap.3] The deaths of 400,000 civilians deported during the Soviet annexations in 1939-40 are included with World War II casualties.[47][3,]Civilian losses in the postwar era (1946-47) due to famine and disease are not included with these losses.
  • Jewish Holocaust Deaths. 5.7 million (78%) of the 7.3 million Jews in German dominated Europe perished in the war.- Source: Martin Gilbert, Atlas of the Holocaust 1988, P.242-244. ISBN 0-688-12364-3
  • Sources - The footnotes list the details of the losses and their sources.

Notas en particular

  1.  En realidad, no se trata de víctimas de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, sino que se produjeron con anterioridad. A pesar de ello, figuran en la wikipedia en inglés.
  2.  Albania
    La lista de víctimas de guerra de Albania se ha tomado de Albania : a country study Federal Research Division, Library of Congress ; edited by Raymond E. Zickel and Walter R. Iwaskiw. 2nd ed. 1994 ISBN 0-8444-0792-5. Accesible online en la Federal Research Division de la U.S. Library of Congress, véase 'Country Studies-Albania' -Chapter 5: Sec-World War Two.
    La víctimas del holocausto judío se calculan en 200.[14,244]
  3.  Austria
    Military war dead of 260,749 are included with Germany.[6,335] Civilian war dead included 24,000 killed by military operations, including Allied Strategic Bombing.[2,37-42]and 10,000 victims of Nazi political persecution from 1939 to 1945,[17,Table A]the genocide of Roma people of 6,500 persons [13,183]and Jewish Holocaust victims totaling 65,000.[14,244]
  4.  Australia
    The war dead listed here are those reported by the Australian War Memorial website article, Australian Military Statistics: WWII- Australian civilian deaths were due primarily to Air raids on Australia, 1942–43 and Axis naval activity in Australian waters
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission[29].reports total deaths were 40,463, which included Army (26,516), Air Force (11,105), Navy (2,315), Merchant Navy (440), unidentified by branch of service (1), and civilian deaths (86). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47 (1,731)[22]
    The preliminary 1945 data for Australian losses was killed 23,365, missing 6,030, wounded 39,803 and POW 26,363.[20]
  5.  Belgium
    Military war dead included 8,800 killed, 500 missing in action, 200 executed, 800 resistance movement fighters and 1,800 POWs. Civilian losses included deaths due to military operations of 32,200 and 16,900 non-Jewish victims of Nazi reprisals and repression.[2,43-45] Losses of about 10,000 in the German Armed Forces are not included in these figures.[6,230] The genocide of Roma people was 500 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 24,387.[14,244]
  6.  Brazil
    The Brazilian Expeditionary Force war dead were 510[1,255], Navy losses in the Battle of the Atlantic were 492. Civilian losses due to attacks on merchant shipping were 470 merchant mariners and 502 passengers.[16,540]
  7.  Bulgaria
    Bulgarian military war dead were as follows, 2,000 military with Axis in Yugoslavia and Greece; 10,124 military dead as allies of the USSR and 10,000 Anti-Fascist Partisan deaths.[3,38-39] Regarding partisan and civilian casualties Vadim Erlikman notes " According to the official data of the royal government 2,320 were killed and 199 executed. [33,158]The communists claim that 20-35,000 persons died. In reality deaths were 10,000, including and unknown number of civilians." [3,38-39] 3,000 civilians were killed by Anglo-American air raids[16,512]; including 1,374 in Bombing of Sofia in World War II.[32,196]
  8.  Burma
    Military dead of 22,000 were with the pro-Japanese Burma National Army [3,74-75] Civilian deaths during the Japanese occupation of Burma totaled 250,000; 110,000 Burmese, plus 100,000 Indian and 40,000 Chinese civilians in Burma.[16,556].
  9.  Canada
    The war dead listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission[29]. Total deaths were 45,365 which included Army (24,530), Air Force (17,394), Navy (2,169), Merchant Navy (1,270), unidentified by branch of service(1), and civilian deaths(2). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47 (1,298)[22] TheCanadian War Museum.[62] website has a narrative of Canada's role in the war. Newfoundland's losses are not included in these figures and are listed separately since it was not part of Canada during World War II. The preliminary 1945 data for Canadian losses was killed 37,476, missing 1,843, wounded 53,174 and POW 9,045.[20]
  10.  China
    The official total of China's civilian and military casualties in the Second Sino-Japanese War is 20 million dead and 15 million wounded. The figures for total military casualties, killed and wounded are: Nationalist 3.2 million; Communist 580,000 and collaborator forces 1.18 million plus 950,000 captured.[34,4-9]
    John W. Dower has noted “ So great was the devastation and suffering in China that in the end it is necessary to speak of uncertain “millions” of deaths. Certainly, it is reasonable to think in general terms of approximately 10 million Chinese war dead, a total surpassed only by the Soviet Union” [9,295-296].
    R. J. Rummel's estimate of total war dead from 1937-45 is 19,605,000. The details are as follows:
    Military dead: 3,400,000 Nationalist/Communist(including 400,000 POW ) and 432,000 Wang Jingwei and Manchukuo Chinese military forces collaborating with Japan.[5,Table 5A].
    Civilian war deaths: 3,808,000 killed in fighting and 3,549,000 victims of Japanese war crimes(not including an additional 400,000 POWs);
    Other deaths: Repression by Chinese Nationalist's 5,907,000 (including 3,081,000 military conscripts and 2,250,00 famine deaths caused by Nationalist government); repression by Chinese Communists 250,000 and by Warlords 110,000. Additional deaths due to famine were 2,250,000.[5,Table 5A].
  11.  Cuba
    Cuba lost 5 merchant ships and 79 dead merchant mariners[16,540] The Cuban sub chaser CS-13 sank U-176 on May 15,1943.[63][64]
  12.  Czechoslovakia
    Military war dead of 25,000 included Killed during 1938 occupation(171); Czechoslovak Forces with the western allies (3,220); Czechoslovak military units on Eastern front (4,570); Slovak Republic (WWII) Axis forces (7,000); Partisan (military) losses of (2,170) and killed in 1945 uprising(8,000).[3,54]--[35,270]Totals do not include an additional estimated 30,000 dead in Hungarian Army.[8,58-59] Civilian losses in include killed during 1938 occupation(262); non Jewish victims of Nazi reprisals (26,500) and killed in military operations (10,000)).[3,54]--[35,270] Civilian losses include the territories of prewar Czechoslovakia, including Carpathian Ruthenia which was ceded to the USSR after the war. The genocide of Roma people was 7,500 persons.[13,183-184]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 277,000.[14,244]
  13.  Denmark
    During the Occupation of Denmark military war dead included 1,281Merchant Marine, 797 resistance fighters and 49 Army personnel. Civilian deaths included 628 victims of Nazi reprisals and 440 killed during military operations. The 3,900 Danish deaths in German military service are included with German losses. Figures are from Danish Military Historie website[65]
    It has been argued that the disproportionately low figure for Danish dead is due mainly to the non violent policy of the Danish resistance movement during the occupation (see video: "A Force More Powerful", OCLC 45399754).
    Deaths of Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 77.[14,244]
  14.  Estonia
    Includes civilian losses due to war(35,000) and Soviet occupation(6,000) in 1940-41. Does not include military dead with Soviet(13,000) and German Armed Forces(22,000). Total deaths from 1940-53 due the war and the Soviet occupation were 81,000(8% of the population).[3,35] The genocide of Roma people was 1,000 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 1,000.[14,244]
  15.  Ethiopia
    Total military and civilian dead in the East African Campaign were 100,000.[16,491]. Military losses were 5,000[74].
    These totals do not include losses in the the Italian Second Italo-Abyssinian War and Italian occupation from 1935-41. The official Ethiopian government report lists 760,000 deaths due to the war and occupation from 1935-41. [75]. However, R. J. Rummel estimates 200,000 killed by the Italians from 1936-41, his estimate is " based on Discovery TV Cable Channel Program "Timewatch" 1/17/92.[4,Chap.14]
  16.  Finland
    Figures include killed and missing from the Winter War and Continuation War with the Soviet Union as well as action against German forces in 1944-45, Winter War (1939-40) losses were 22,830, military deaths from 1941-44 were 58,715[28] and 1,036[28] in 1944-45 in the Lapland War The Finnish Defense Forces website lists the names of the 95,000 Finnish military war dead [66], which includes 2,400 soldiers who died after the war due to their wounds. During the Winter war of 1939-40 the Swedish Volunteer Corps served alongside the Finns and lost 28 men in combat. 1,407 Finnish volunteers served in the German SS-Volunteer Battalion Nordost and 256 were killed in action.[67] On November 6, 1942, eight foreign Jewish refugees (out of more than 500 Jewish refugees) were handed over to the Germans. Although the exact reason for their handover is not known, Finland did not enforce anti-Semitic racial policies, leaving this case as isolated among more than 500 Jewish refugees who were granted asylum.[45] [68]
  17.  France
    Military war dead include 150,000 regular forces(1939-40 Battle of France 92,000; 1940-45 on Western Front (World War II) 58,000); 20,000 French resistance fighters and 40,000 POWs in Germany. French deaths in German Army (30-40,000), mostly men conscripted in Alsace-Lorraine, are not included in these totals. Civilian losses include 120,000 killed due to military action and 230,000 victims of the Nazi reprisals and genocide(including 83,000 Jews).[2,60-65] The pro-German Vichy France forces lost 2,653 killed.[16,582] Vadim Erlikman, a Russian historian, estimates losses of Africans in the French Colonial Forces at about 22,000.[3,83-99] The genocide of Roma people was 15,000 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 83,000.[14,244]
  18.  French Indochina
    Deaths due to Vietnamese Famine of 1945 during Japanese occupation[9,297]
  19.  Germany
    The 1939 Population is for Germany within 1937 borders and the Free City of Danzig. Austria and the 7,100,000 ethnic Germans of eastern Europe are not included in the German population[69]. However, the 500,000 military and 400,000 civilian deaths of ethnic Germans in eastern Europe are included with total German losses, after the war 5 million became refugees in Germany and Austria.[23,16-36]
  20.  Dr. Rűdiger Overmans of the German Military History Office in Potsdam has provided a reassessment of German military war dead based on a statistical analysis of German military personnel records.[6]. Overmans concluded that these losses were 5,318,0000, not including the deaths of 215,000 Soviet citizens conscripted by Germany [7,278]. German losses were previously estimated at 4.5 million[31,111-129], Overmans includes 360,000 deaths that were previously listed as civilian losses in eastern Europe and 230,000 as paramilitary, Volkssturm or police forces fighting with the regular forces. Overmans lists the following losses- Africa 16,066; the Balkans 103,693; Northern Europe 30,165; Western Europe until 12/31/44- 339,957; Italy 150,660; against the U.S.S.R. until 12/31/44- 2,742,909; final battles in Germany during 1945-1,230,045; other ( including air war in Germany & at sea ) 245,561; POWs 459,475- Grand Total 5.318 million. Overmans lists losses of 4,450,000 from pre-war Germany, 261,000 from Austria, 530,000 ethnic Germans from eastern Europe, 30,0000 French and 30,000 volunteers from western Europe. Included in the total of 5.3 Million war dead are 2.0 Million men listed as missing in action or unaccounted for after the war.[6,333-336]
    For a critical analysis of the statistical methodology of Overmans see [70] In addition to these losses the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht reported the losses of Soviet citizens serving in the German military [24]separately, these losses were not included in the Overmans analysis of German casualties.[6,228-230]. A Russian source, G. I. Krivosheev reported these losses as 215,000[7,278]. In this schedule they are included with German military war dead.
  21.   Civilian war dead include 360-370,000 killed by Allied Strategic bombing within the 1937 German boundaries[25,460]. About 500-600,000 victims of Nazi persecution and genocide from 1939 to 1945 including 300,000 political prisoners, victims of the Action T4 euthanasia program, Gay men and 160,000 German Jews .[17,Table A]Rűdiger Overmans estimates 1,100,000 German civilian dead ( 690,000 from Germany and 410,000 ethnic Germans of eastern Europe) as the result of Red Army atrocities and the expulsion of Germans after World War II[6,298-299]. Postwar deaths of about 500,000 due to famine and 270,000 deaths due to Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union[23,33] are not included in these losses.
    The 1949 preliminary estimate of German war losses by the West German government was 3,250,000 military dead and missing plus 500,000 civilian dead and 1,533,000 missing civilians[30,1949-8/226]. In 1956 these figures were revised; 3,760,000 military dead and missing, 410,000 civilians killed in bombings and 1,260,000 civilians killed in the expulsions from Poland.[30,1956-10/494]. These figures were for Germany in 1937 borders only and did not include additional losses from Austria(280,000 military and 24,000 civilians); the ethnic Germans in eastern Europe (430,000 military and 800,000 civilians); and 60,000 military deaths of men from France and western Europe. Total 4,530,000 for entire German Armed Forces and 2,470,000 civilians[31,111-129].
    The genocide of Roma people was 15,000 persons.[13,183] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 160,000.[14,244]
  22.  Greece
    The war dead included 20,000 military deaths in the Greco-Italian War of 1940-41, 60,000 non-Jewish civilians, 20,000 non Jewish deportees and 140,000 famine deaths during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II.[2,89-91]
    Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 71,301.[14,244]
  23.  Hungary
    Tamás Stark of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences has provided the following assessment of losses from 1941-45 in Hungary. Military losses were 300,000-310,000 including 110-120,000 killed in battle and 200,000 missing in action and POW in the Soviet Union. Hungarian military losses include 110,000 men who were conscripted from the annexed territories of Greater Hungary in Slovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia and the deaths of 20-25,000 Jews conscripted for Army labor units. Civilian losses of about 80,000 include 45,500 killed in the 1944-45 military campaign and in air attacks,[8,58-60] and the genocide of Roma people of 28,000 persons.[13,188]Jewish Holocaust victims, in 1939 borders, totaled 200,000.[14,244].
  24.  Iceland
    Confirmed losses of civilian sailors due to German attacks and mines.[26]
  25.  India
    1939 Population includes present day India, Pakistán and Bangladesh. The war dead listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission[29]. Total deaths were 87,040 which included Army (79,326), Air Force (897), Navy (501), Merchant Navy (6,114), unidentified by branch of service(9), and civilian deaths(193). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47 (8,522)[22]The preliminary 1945 data for Indian losses was, killed 24,338, missing 11,754, wounded 64,354 and POW 79,489.[20]The pro-Japanese Indian National Army lost 2,615 dead and missing[16,556].
    Civilian losses were caused by the Bengal famine of 1943.[4, Chap 3][9,297]
  26.  Indonesia-Dutch East Indies
    John W. Dower cites a UN report listing 4 million famine and forced labor dead during the Japanese Occupation of Indonesia including 30,000 European civilian internee deaths[9,296] .
  27.  Iran
    Losses during allied occupation in 1941.[16,498].
  28.  Iraq
    Losses during Anglo-Iraqi War and UK occupation in 1941.[3,65][16,498].
  29.  Ireland
    Despite being neutral, Ireland suffered casualties. In 1995 Irish Taoiseach(Prime Minister)John Bruton claimed at least 10,000 Irish were killed serving in the British or Commonwealth armed forces. The civilian death figure includes 33 Irish merchantmen were killed when a U-Boat torpedoed the Irish Pine, and deaths caused by the presumably accidental bombing of Ireland in three instances. Shipping losses [71] Bombings [72] [27]
  30.  Italy
    The official Italian government accounting of World War Two 1940-45 losses listed the following data. [68,]. Total military dead and missing from 1940-45 were 291,376, losses prior to the September 8, 1943 Armistice with Italy totaled 204,346 ( killed 66,686, missing 111,579, died of disease 26,081), after the September 8, 1943 Armistice with Italy, 87,030 (killed 42,916, missing 19,840 died of disease 24,274). Losses by branch of service: Army 201,405; Navy 22,034; Air Force 9,096; Colonial Forces 354; Chaplains 91; Fascist militia 10,066; Paramilitary 3,252; not indicated 45,078. Military Losses by theatre of war: Italy 74,725 (37,573 post armistice); France 2,060 (1,039 post armistice); Germany 25,430 (24,020 post armistice); Greece, Albania & Yugoslavia 49,459 (10,090 post armistice); USSR 82,079 (3,522 post armistice); Africa 22,341 (1,565 post armistice), at sea 28,438 (5,526 post armistice); other & unknown 6,844 (3,695 post armistice). POW losses are included with military losses mentioned above. Civilian losses were 153,147 ( 123,119 post armistice) including 61,432 (42,613 post armistice) in air attacks[68]. A brief summary of data from this report can be found online at -[73](go to Vol 13, No. 15).
    There were in addition to these losses the deaths of African soldiers conscripted by Italy which were estimated by the Italian military at 10,000 in East African Campaign of 1940-41.[73].
    Included in the losses are 64,000 victims of Nazi reprisals and genocide including 30,000 POWs and 8,500 Jews[17, Table A]. Losses included Italian war prisoners in Soviet Union 1942-1954 of 28,000 [3,47] Military losses in Italy after the September 1943 Armistice with Italy, included 5,927 with the Allies, 17,488 Italian resistance movement fighters and 13,000 RSI Italian Social Republic Fascist forces. The genocide of Roma people was 1,000 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 8,562. (including Libya)[14,244]
  31.  Japan
    1939 Japanese population includes 1.7 million Japanese in China and Korea.[15,15]
    Japanese government data on military casualties details the deaths of 1,740,955 in combat theatres. The details are as follows: 185,647 in China from 1937-41 and 1,555,308 from 1941-45 in the Pacific War. Army - Against US- 485,717; Against UK/Netherlands-208,026; In China-202,958; Against Australia -199,511; French Indochina -2,803; Against USSR -7,483; Other overseas -23,388; Japan proper -10,543. Navy 1941/45 -414,879. [9,297-299]. There were an additional 347,000 dead and missing POWs in the USSR, China and Korea after the war. [44] Totals include Koreans(22,182) and Chinese from Taiwan(30,304)[74] conscripted by Japan.
    Civilian losses include 393,000 dead due to U. S. Strategic bombing including 210,000 killed in the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In addition to these deaths 150,000 civilians were killed on Okinawa and 10,000 on Saipán during the fighting.[9,297-299] War related deaths of Japanese merchant marine personnel were 27,000.[16,578]
    However, the Yasukuni Shrine in Japan lists a total of 2,325,128 military deaths from 1937-1945 including civilians who participated in combat, Chinese(Taiwan) and Koreans in the Japanese Armed Forces. Total civilian deaths in 1945 on the Japanese home islands exceeded the prewar level by approximately 900,000.[15,29-30] Not included in Japanese war dead are 432,000 Wang Jingwei and Manchukuo Chinese military forces collaborating with Japan.[5,Table 5A]
  32.  Korea
    John W. Dower estimates 70,000 conscripted Korean laborers and soldiers dead in Korea under Japanese rule during World War Two including 10-15,000 killed in the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki [9,297] The number of Korean military personnel in the Japanese Armed forces was 242,341, and 22,182 of them died during World War II
  33.  Latvia
    Includes civilian losses due to war (220,000) and Soviet occupation in 1940-41(7,000). Does not include military dead with Soviet(13,000) and German Armed Forces (24,000).Total deaths from 1940-53 due the war and the Soviet occupation were 287,000(14% of the population)[3,28]The genocide of Roma people was 2,500 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 80,000[14,244]
  34.  Lithuania
    Includes civilian losses due to war (345,000) and Soviet occupation in 1940-41(8,000). Does not include military dead with Soviet (27,000) and German Armed Forces (8,000).Total deaths from 1940-53 due the war and the Soviet occupation were 448,000(15% of the population)[3,29] The genocide of Roma people was 1,000 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 141,000[14,244]
  35.  Luxembourg
    Total war dead were 5,000 [2,107]which included military losses of about 3,000 with the German Armed Forces and 200 in Belgian Army. The genocide of Roma people was 200 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 700.[14,244]
  36.  Malaysia
    Victims of forced labor and reprisals during the Japanese occupation.[9,296]
  37.  Malta
    Air attack victims.[16,491]. The BBC has an online report on the siege of Malta [75]
  38.  Mexico
    Mexico lost 7 merchant ships and 63 dead merchant mariners[16,540]A Mexican Air Force unit Escuadrón 201 served in the Pacific and suffered 1 non combat death.
  39.  Mongolia
    Military losses with USSR against Japan in the 1939 Battle of Khalkhin Gol (200) and 1945 Operation August Storm (72) campaigns.[3,74]
  40.  Netherlands
    Military and merchant marine deaths total 7,900. Civilian losses include 20,400 killed due to military action; 52,000 non Jewish victims of Nazi reprisals and repression; 16,000 deaths in the Dutch famine of 1944 .[2,109-111] Losses of about 10,000 in the German Armed Forces are not included in these figures.[6,230] Totals do not include 25,000 Dutch civilian deaths in the Dutch East Indies included with Indonesia.[4, Chap.3] The genocide of Roma people was 500 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 106,000.[14,244]
  41.  Newfoundland
    Military losses with UK(574) and Canadian forces(100). Source: Canadian War Museum.[76][77] Military losses include 333 from the Newfoundland Merchant Navy,[78]. Civilian due to the sinking of the SS Caribou in October 1942[79].
  42.  New Zealand
    The military deaths listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission[29]. Total deaths were 11,929 which included Army(7,595), Air Force(3,787), Navy(539), Merchant Navy (7) and a civilian death(1). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47(269)[22] Details can be found online at the New Zealand Armed Forces Memorial Project[80]The preliminary 1945 data for New Zealand losses was, killed 10,033, missing 2,129, wounded 19,314 and POW 8,453.[20]
  43.  Norway
    Military deaths were 2,000 regular forces and 1,000 resistance fighters. Civilian dead include 3,600 merchant marine. Total does not include 700 deaths with German Armed Forces.[2,112-113] The Norwegian Foreign Ministry reported that "10,262 Norwegians had been killed, including 3,670 seamen. The Germans had executed 366 and tortured 39 to death. Among political prisoners and members of the underground, 658 died at home and 1,433 abroad. About 6,000 Norwegians had served the German war cause, and 709 of them had fallen in battle. [81] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 728.[14,244]
  44.  Philippines
    Military war dead include 7,000 in the Battle of the Philippines (1941-42), 8,000 anti-Japanese guerrillas and 42,000 (out of 98,000) POWs in Japanese captivity[16,566]. Civilian losses were victims of Japanese war crimes including the Manila massacre.[9,296]
  45.  Pacific Islands
    Victims of Japanese war crimes.[4,Chap 3]
  46.  Poland
    Tadeusz Piotrowski Professor of Sociology at the University of New Hampshire has provided a reassessment of Poland’s losses in World War Two. Polish war dead include 5,150,000 victims of Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles and the Holocaust, the treatment of Polish citizens by occupiers included 350,000 deaths during the Soviet occupation in 1940-41 and about 100,000 Poles killed in 1943-44 during the massacres of Poles in Volhynia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. Losses by ethnic group were 3,100,000 Jews; 2,000,000 ethnic Poles; 500,000 Ukrainians and Belarusians.[82](go to note on Polish Casualties at the bottom of the page).
    The official Polish government report prepared in 1947 reported 6,028,000 war victims in German hands(including 123,000 military deaths, 3.2 million Poles and 2.8 million Jews), out of a population of 27,007,000 ethnic Poles and Jews; this report excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses. [39] The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum has reported that in addition to 3 million Polish Jews killed in the Holocaust. "Documentation remains fragmentary, but today scholars of independent Poland believe that 1.8 to 1.9 million Polish civilians (non-Jews) were victims of German Occupation policies and the war", not including deaths caused by the Soviets. [43][38] This revision of estimated war losses was the topic of articles in the Polish academic journal Dzieje Najnowsze .[42]
    Losses by geographic area [83] were 2.9 million in present day Poland [40] and about 2.5 million in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union [41]
    The Polish contribution to World War II included forces fighting with the western allies and the U.S.S.R. after the occupation of Poland in 1939. Military losses were 66,300 in the 1939 Invasion of Poland, 10,000 in Polish Armed Forces in the West, 24,700 with the 1st Polish Army alongside the USSR and 60,000 Polish resistance movement fighters;[3,49-50]The Warsaw Uprising of 1944 cost the lives of 200,000 Poles
    During the war 2,762,000[70] Polish citizens of German descent declared their loyalty to Germany by signing the Deutsche Volksliste. A German source lists the deaths of 108,000 Polish citizens serving in the German armed forces [31,115].
    The genocide of Roma people was 35,000 persons.[13,183] Jewish Holocaust victims, in 1939 borders, totaled 3,000,000[14,244]
  47.  Timor
    Officially neutral, East Timor was occupied by Japan during 1942-45. Allied commandos initiated a guerilla resistance campaign and most deaths were caused by Japanese reprisals against the civilian population Department of Defence (Australia), 2002, "A Short History of East Timor" (Access date: January 3, 2007.)
  48.  Romania
    Total Romanian military war dead were approximately 300,000[16,582]. Total Killed were 93,326 ( 72,291 with Axis and 21,035 with allies)[10,216-217] Total POW deaths of about 215,000; (200,000 in Soviet captivity[10,216-217] and 15,000 in German captivity[3,51]). Figures do not include an additional estimated 40,000 to 50,000 dead in Hungarian Army.[8,58-60]
    Civilian losses of 64,000 included 20,000 during Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Bukovina in 1940-41 [3,51]; the genocide of Roma people 36,000 deaths.[13,184]; Allied air raids on Romania caused the deaths of 7,693 civilians[10,314].
    Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 469,000 in 1939 borders which includes 325,000 in Bessarabia and Bukovina occupied by the U.S.S.R. in 1940.[84].[14,244]
  49.  Singapore
    Victims of Japanese war crimes including the Japanese Occupation of Singapore and the Sook Ching massacre[4,Chap 3]
  50.  South Africa
    The losses listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission [29]. Total deaths were 11,902 which included Army (8,782), Air Force (2,706), Navy (349), Merchant Navy (0) and civilian deaths (65). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47 (878)[22]The preliminary 1945 data for South African losses was killed 6,840, missing 1,841 wounded 14,363 and POW 14,589.[20]
  51.  Soviet Union
    The official total of military deaths is 8,668,400; including 6,330,000 killed in action/died of wounds and 556,000 dead from non-combat causes[7,85] plus an estimated 500,000 MIA and 1,283,000 POW dead out of 4,059,000 total POW[7,236]. However, the estimate by western historians of Soviet military POW deaths is about 3 million (out of 5.7 million total POWs)[85].[17, Table A] Richard Overy has noted that " The official figures themselves must be viewed critically, given the difficulty of knowing in the chaos of 1941 and 1942 exactly who had been killed, wounded or even conscripted".[21,XV] The official statistics do not include an additional estimated 1,500,000 conscripted reservists missing or killed, primarily in 1941, before being listed on active strength,150,000 militia and 250,000 Soviet partisan dead. [3, 20-21]Total Soviet population losses included approximately 13 million men aged 17 to 39.[11,78]
    Civilian losses presented here are for USSR in 1939 borders. The total Soviet population in 1941 of 196.7 million has been adjusted by Russian demographers only for net population transfers. [11,78], [12,83-84][86]. Total deaths in the USSR, within the borders of 1946-1991, exceeded the pre war level by 26,600,000 from 1941-45.[11,78], including about 3.5 million civilian dead in the territories annexed by the USSR in 1939-1940, in this schedule they are not included with USSR losses nor are the 215,000 Soviet war dead in the German armed forces.[7,278]-[24]. Civilian losses in territories annexed by USSR are included in totals of the Baltic states(600,000)[3,23-34], Poland(2,500,000) [41]Czechoslovakia(80,000)][14,244] and Romania(300,000)][14,244].
    The deaths of 8.2 million Soviet civilians, including Jews, were documented by the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission[60,140]. Contemporary Russian historians estimate 2.5 to 3.2 million civilian dead due to famine in Soviet territory not occupied by the Germans, these deaths are included in Soviet civilian losses.[12,158]. A Russian historian Vadim Erlikman has detailed Soviet losses totaling 26.5 million war related deaths plus 1.7 million victims of Soviet repression. Military losses of 10.6 million include 7.6 million killed or missing in action and 2.6 million POW dead (out of 5.2 million total POWs), plus 400,000 paramilitary and Soviet partisan losses. Civilian deaths totaled 15.9 million which included 1.5 million from military actions; 7.1 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals; 1.8 million deported to Germany for forced labor; and 5.5 million famine and disease deaths (including 3.0 million in the territory not under German occupation). Additional famine deaths which totaled 1 million during 1946-47 are not included here. These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR including territories annexed in 1939-40[3,20-21]
    The genocide of Roma people was 30,000 persons.[13,184]Jewish Holocaust victims, in 1939 borders only, totaled 1,000,000.[14,244]
    Total military dead, including partisans & militia, of the individual Soviet republics were[3, 23-35]:
    Russia 6,750,000; Armenia 150,000; Azerbaijan 210,000; Belarus 620,000; Georgia 190,000; Moldova 42,000; Ukraine 1,620,000; Estonia 13,000; Latvia 13,000; Lithuania 27,000; Kazakhstan 310,000; Kyrgyzstan 70,00; Tajikistan 50,000; Turkmenistan 70,000; Uzbekistan 330,000. Total civilian losses, including territories annexed 1939-45, of the individual Soviet republics were[3, 23-35]:
    Russia 7,200,000; Armenia 30,000; Azerbaijan 110,000; Belarus 1,670,000; Georgia 110,000; Moldova 120,000; Ukraine 5,200,000; Estonia 35,000; Latvia 220,000; Lithuania 345,000; Kazakhstan 350,000; Kyrgyzstan 50,00; Tajikistan 70,000; Turkmenistan 30,000; Uzbekistan 220,000.
  52.  Spain
    Military deaths were of volunteer soldiers from the all Spanish Blue Division serving alongside Germany Army in the U.S.S.R. The unit was withdrawn by Spain in 1943.[16,515]. R. J. Rummel estimates the deaths of 20,000 anti-Fascist Spanish refugees resident in France who were deported to Nazi camps, these deaths are included with French civilian casualties.[17, Table A]
  53.  Sweden
    During the Winter war of 1939-40 the Swedish Volunteer Corps served alongside the Finns and lost 28 men in combat. About 300 Swedish volunteers served in the German Wehrmacht and 30-45 were killed in action. [87]
    33 Swedish sailors were killed when submarine Uleven was sunk by a German mine on April 16, 1943.
    187 Swedish merchant marine crew were killed by Soviet submarine attacks.[88]
  54.  Switzerland
    The Americans accidentally bombed Switzerland during the war causing civilian casualties. [89]-[90]Losses of about 300 Swiss in the German Armed Forces are included with German casualties.[6,230]
  55.  Thailand
    Military deaths in French-Thai War 1940-41, the Japanese invasion, and Burma Campaign 1942-45. Civilian deaths caused by Allied bombing 1944-45. Military deaths consists of 143 officers, 474 non-commissioned officers, 4942 other ranks, and 88 field policemen. Royal Thai Armed Forces Education Department
  56.  United Kingdom and Colonies
    The losses listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.[29] Total deaths were 453,000 which included Army (210,191), Air Force (84,778), Navy (59,164), Merchant Navy (28,905), unidentified by branch of service (610), and civilian deaths (69,384). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47.(16,628)[22] The losses of Newfoundland (905) and Malta are included in these figures but are listed separately on this schedule.
    UK casualties include losses of the colonial forces which are the topic of the following BBC article- [91] The losses of colonial troops include 3,700 African war dead which are detailed by V. Erlikman.[3,83-99]. UK colonial forces included units from Africa, Malaya, Burma, Ceylon, TransJordan, Cyprus, Gibraltar, Malta and the Jewish Brigade
    The official UK report on war casualties of June 1946 provided a preliminary tally of war losses. This report listed the war deaths of 357,116; Navy (50,758); Army (144,079); Air Force (69,606); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (624); Merchant Navy (30,248); British Home Guard ( 1,206) and Civilians (60,595). The total still missing on 2/28/1946 was 6,244; Navy (340); Army (2,267); Air Force (3,089); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (18); Merchant Navy (530); British Home Guard (0) and Civilians (0). These figures included the losses of Newfoundland and Southern Rhodesia. There were an additional 31,271 military deaths due to "natural causes" which are not included in these figures. Deaths due to air and rocket attacks were 60,595 civilians and 1,206 British Home Guard. The deaths of civilians interned was unknown at that time.[19,7] The preliminary 1945 data for colonial forces was killed 6,877, missing 14,208, wounded 6,972 and POW 8,115.[20]
  57.  United States
    Source of military war dead is U.S.DOD data [92] Total losses include battle deaths of 292,131 and deaths due to non combat causes of 115,185, including the United States Coast Guard which incurred losses of 574 battle deaths and 1,343 dead due to non combat causes.[16,584-591]. These losses were incurred during the period 12/1/41 until 12/31/46 including an additional 126 men in October 1941 when the USS Kearny and the USS Reuben James were attacked by U-Boats. The United States Army Air Forces losses, which are included in the Army total, were 52,173 deaths due to combat and 35,946 from non combat causes[69]Military dead listed here include 9,521 United States Merchant Marine personnel, these losses are not included in the official DOD statistics. Details given at USMM website [93]
    Details of United States Army Air Forces losses are listed online at[94].Details of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps losses are listed online at [95]. U.S. Combat Dead by Theater of war - Europe-Atlantic 183,588; Army ground forces 141,088; United States Army Air Forces 36,461 and Navy/Coast Guard 6,039; Asia-Pacific 108,504; Army ground forces 41,592; United States Army Air Forces 15,694; Navy/Coast Guard 31,485; Marine Corps 19,733. Unidentified Theatres- Army 39[69] [16,584-591]. Included in combat deaths are 14,059 POWs, in Europe (1,124) and (12,935) in Asia[16,584-591]. A listing of individual U.S. Army deaths in World War Two can be found at the U.S. National Archives website [96].
    Civilian dead were 1,704 American civilians interned, by the Japanese(1,563) and in Europe (168), which are the subject of a U.S. Congressional Research Service report. Go to page CRS-11[97]. During the Attack on Pearl Harbor 68 U.S. civilians were killed by friendly fire[16,552] and 6 U.S. civilians were killed in Oregon in 1945 by Japanese balloon bombs [16,580].
    Total US Army/US Army Air Forces/US Marines/US Navy buried at sea are 6,043 atMIA/SEA MAIN.HTM.
    Total US Army/US Army Air Forces/US Marines/US Navy/Civilians remains not recovered are 74,384 at MIA/MIA MAIN.HTM.
    American Battle Monuments Commission website lists the names of 176,399 military/civilian personnel buried in ABMC cemeteries or listed on Walls of the Missing total 176,399. US Dead of World War II buried at 24 ABMC cemeteries total 93,242, of whom 8,600 are unknown. {See website at[98]}. The U.S. Department of Defense lists in the total number of US World War II MIAS as 73,664[99]{Pdf file}. It should be noted that ABMC records are for those US casualites who were lost outside the US.
    Examples of US fatalities lost within the US was the Port Chicago explosion in which 320 died or the Women Airforce Service Pilots in which 38 lost their lives.
  58.  Yugoslavia
    The U.S. Bureau of the Census published a report in that concluded that Yugoslav war related deaths were 1,067,000. The U.S. Bureau of the Census noted that the official Yugoslav government figure of 1.7 million war dead was overstated because it "was released soon after the war and was estimated witout the benefit of a postwar census" [67,23] A recent study by Vladimir Žerjavić lists total war related deaths as 1,027,000. Military losses of 237,000 Yugoslav partisans and 209,000 Ustaše. Civilian dead of 581,000, including 57,000 Jews. Losses of the Yugoslav Republics were Bosnia 316,000; Serbia 273,000; Croatia 271,000; Slovenia 33,000; Montenegro 27,000; Macedonia 17,000; and killed abroad 80,000. [66]. Bogoljub Kočović a statistician, who is a Serb by ethnic affiliation calculated that the actual war losses were 1,014,000[66]. The USHMM reports between 56,000 and 97,000 persons were killed at the Jasenovac concentration camp[64] [63]. However, Yad Vashem reports 600,000 deaths at Jasenovac. [65]. The genocide of Roma people was 40,000 persons.[13,183-184]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 67,122.[14,244]

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[114]

  • 57. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia How many Catholics were killed during the Holocaust?[115]
  • 58. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia BLACKS DURING THE HOLOCAUST [116]
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D.C.- 1954

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Bibliografía

  • F. W. Putzger: Historischer Weltatlas, Velhagen & Klasing, Bielefeld Berlin Hannover, 1969
  • W. van Mourik: Bilanz des Krieges, Lekturama-Rotterdam, 1978
  • Boris C. Urlanis: Bilanz der Kriege. Die Menschenverluste Europas vom 17. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart, Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1965
  • Micheal Clodfelter: Warfare and armed conflicts: a statistical reference to casualties and other figures, 1500-2000, McFarland, Jefferson, N.C., 2002 (2nd ed.) ISBN 0-7864-1204-6
  • Rüdiger Overmans: Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Oldenbourg, München, 2004 (3. Aufl.) ISBN 3-486-56531-1

Enlaces externos

Fuentes

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